Amy Whitehead's Research

the ecological musings of a conservation biologist


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Three new papers: urban development, agriculture & skua

What do urban development, agriculture and skua have in common? Superficially very little, except that they feature in three papers that I published in the past few weeks. These papers are the culmination of  research projects I worked on at Landcare Research and the Quantitative & Applied Ecology group at The University of Melbourne and it’s super exciting to see them finally out in print. Many thanks to the teams of co-authors who made these possible.


Protecting biodiversity while planning for development

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Clever strategic planning can identify land for urban development that minimises habitat clearing and benefits native plants and animals. Picture: WWF-Australia.

As our cities expand due to population growth, development encroaches on the natural habitat of native plants and animals. While developers often have to assess how their new subdivision or industrial park will impact on these populations, this is usually done at the scale of individual developments and often only considers a few species. The consequence of such ad-hoc assessment is that biodiversity can undergo “death by a thousand cuts” where the cumulative impacts of many development projects can be more severe than those predicted by the individual assessments. However, a lack of good tools and guidance has limited  how impact assessments are carried out. We looked at how existing conservation planning tools can use information on the distribution of many species over large areas to identify the potential impacts of a large-scale development plan in Western Australia. We worked closely with government agencies to identify important areas for biodiversity conservation and make minor changes to the development plans that significantly reduced the potential impacts to biodiversity. See our paper for more details on our framework for undertaking strategic environmental assessments.

Whitehead, A., Kujala, H., & Wintle, B. (2016). Dealing with cumulative biodiversity impacts in strategic environmental assessment: A new frontier for conservation planning Conservation Letters DOI: 10.1111/conl.12260


Can biodiversity, carbon and agricultural development coexist in Australia’s northern savannas?

Irrigated agriculture in the Ord River Development. Developing northern Australia will involve trade-offs with biodiversity. (Image credit: Garry D. Cook)

Irrigated agriculture in the Ord River Development. Developing northern Australia will involve trade-offs with biodiversity. (Image credit: Garry D. Cook)

There’s a lot of talk about developing Australia’s north, of doubling the agricultural output of this region and pouring billions of dollars into new infrastructure such as irrigation. But what about the natural values of this region and its potential for carbon storage today and into the future? Can we develop the north and still retain these other values?  We undertook a spatial analysis which found agricultural development could have profound impacts on biodiversity OR a relatively light impact, it all depends on how and where it’s done. If managers and decision makers want northern Australia’s sweeping northern savannas to serve multiple purposes then they need to plan strategically for them. For more information about how such strategic planning could be done, check out our paper and the associated press release.

Morán-Ordóñez, A., Whitehead, A., Luck, G., Cook, G., Maggini, R., Fitzsimons, J., & Wintle, B. (2016). Analysis of trade-offs between biodiversity, carbon farming and agricultural development in Northern Australia reveals the benefits of strategic planning. Conservation Letters DOI: 10.1111/conl.12255


Counting skua by counting penguins

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A skua surveying potential lunch options at the Cape Bird Adélie penguin colony.

South polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki) like to chow down on penguins. So it makes sense that they often nest close to penguin colonies. Over the years, we’ve developed a pretty good understanding of the size of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colonies around the Ross Sea, Antarctica, so we set out to see if we could estimate the number of skua associated with those colonies.  Detailed surveys of skua at three Adélie penguin colonies on Ross Island confirmed that more penguins (i.e. more lunch) means more skua.  Using this relationship, we predicted how many skua live in the Ross Sea. To find out how many skua live in the Ross Sea and for a more detailed description of the methods, check out our paper online.

Wilson, D., Lyver, P., Greene, T., Whitehead, A., Dugger, K., Karl, B., Barringer, J., McGarry, R., Pollard, A., & Ainley, D. (2016). South Polar Skua breeding populations in the Ross Sea assessed from demonstrated relationship with Adélie Penguin numbers. Polar Biology. DOI: 10.1007/s00300-016-1980-4

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