Amy Whitehead's Research

the ecological musings of a conservation biologist


Creating a presence-absence raster from point data

I’m working on generating species distribution models at the moment for a few hundred species. Which means that I’m trying to automate as many steps as possible in R to avoid having to click buttons hundreds of times in ArcView.

One of the tasks that I need to do is to convert presence-only latitude and longitude data into a presence-absence raster for each species. It seems like this would be something that relatively simple but it took me longer than it should have to figure it out. So I’m posting my code here so 1) I don’t forget how I did it; and 2) because I had someone ask me how to exactly this thing this afternoon and it took me ages to hunt through my poorly organised files to find this piece of code! So here it is:

Because I’m a function kinda girl, I wrote this as a function. It basically goes through three steps:

1. Take an existing raster of the area you are interested in mask.raster and set the background cells to zero (absences).

2. rasterize the presence points for your species and set those cells to one (presences).

3. Label the new raster by your species names raster.label and save it as a new raster.

presence.absence.raster <- function (mask.raster,,raster.label="") {

# set the background cells in the raster to 0
mask.raster[!] <- 0

#set the cells that contain points to 1
speciesRaster <- rasterize(,mask.raster,field=1)
speciesRaster <- merge(speciesRaster,mask.raster)

#label the raster
names(speciesRaster) <- raster.label

Below is an example of how the function works using data on the global distribution of foxes data from the biomod2 package.


# read in species point data and extract data for foxes
mySpecies <- read.csv(system.file("external/species/mammals_table.csv", package="biomod2"), row.names = 1)
species <- "VulpesVulpes"

# extract fox data from larger dataset and keep only the x and y coordinates <- mySpecies[,c("X_WGS84", "Y_WGS84",species)] <-[$VulpesVulpes==1,c("X_WGS84", "Y_WGS84")]

# read in a raster of the world
myRaster <- raster(system.file( "external/bioclim/current/bio3.grd",package="biomod2"))

# create presence absence raster for foxes
pa.raster <- presence.absence.raster(mask.raster=myRaster,, raster.label=species)
plot(pa.raster, main=names(pa.raster))


In this plot, the presences (1) are shown in green and the absences (0) in light grey.

Helpful things to remember (or things I learnt the hard way)

  1. Make sure your species point data and raster are in the same projection and that they actually overlap!
  2. Set your desired raster extent and resolution in the mask.raster before you get started.
  3. The species point data that you feed into the function should just be a list of x and y co-ordinates – no species names or abundances or you’ll confuse the poor beast and it won’t work!

And yes, foxes are also present in Australia where they are a pest. I guess this map shows their natural range before people started doing silly things.

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(Well it was and then things went a little awry, so I had to do some tinkering!)


Combining dataframes when the columns don’t match

Most of my work recently has involved downloading large datasets of species occurrences from online databases and attempting to smoodge1 them together to create distribution maps for parts of Australia. Online databases typically have a ridiculous number of columns with obscure names which can make the smoodging process quite difficult.

For example, I was trying to combine data from two different regions into one file, where one region had 72 columns of data and another region had 75 columns. If you try and do this using rbind, you get an error but going through and identifying non-matching columns manually would be quite tedious and error-prone.

Here's an example of the function in use with some imaginary data. You'll note that Database One and Two have unequal number of columns (5 versus 6), a number of shared columns (species, latitude, longitude, database) and some unshared columns (method, data.source).

  species latitude longitude        method     database
1       p   -33.87     150.5   camera trap
2       a   -33.71     151.3 live trapping
3       n   -33.79     151.8   camera trap
4       w   -34.35     151.3 live trapping
5       h   -31.78     151.8   camera trap
6       q   -33.17     151.2 live trapping
      database species latitude longitude data.source accuracy
1 database.two       d   -33.95     152.7   herbarium    3.934
2 database.two       f   -32.60     150.2      museum    8.500
3 database.two       z   -32.47     150.7   herbarium    3.259
4 database.two       f   -30.67     150.6      museum    2.756
5 database.two       e   -32.73     149.4   herbarium    4.072
6 database.two       x   -33.49     153.3      museum    8.169
rbind(, database.two)
Error: numbers of columns of arguments do not match

So I created a function that can be used to combine the data from two dataframes, keeping only the columns that have the same names (I don't care about the other ones). I'm sure there are other fancier ways of doing this but here's how my function works.

The basics steps
1. Specify the input dataframes
2. Calculate which dataframe has the greatest number of columns
3. Identify which columns in the smaller dataframe match the columns in the larger dataframe
4. Create a vector of the column names that occur in both dataframes
5. Combine the data from both dataframes matching the listed column names using rbind
6. Return the combined data

rbind.match.columns <- function(input1, input2) {
    n.input1 <- ncol(input1)
    n.input2 <- ncol(input2)

    if (n.input2 < n.input1) {
        TF.names <- which(names(input2) %in% names(input1))
        column.names <- names(input2[, TF.names])
    } else {
        TF.names <- which(names(input1) %in% names(input2))
        column.names <- names(input1[, TF.names])

    return(rbind(input1[, column.names], input2[, column.names]))

rbind.match.columns(, database.two)
   species latitude longitude     database
1        p   -33.87     150.5
2        a   -33.71     151.3
3        n   -33.79     151.8
4        w   -34.35     151.3
5        h   -31.78     151.8
6        q   -33.17     151.2
7        d   -33.95     152.7 database.two
8        f   -32.60     150.2 database.two
9        z   -32.47     150.7 database.two
10       f   -30.67     150.6 database.two
11       e   -32.73     149.4 database.two
12       x   -33.49     153.3 database.two

Running the function gives us a new dataframe with the four shared columns and twelve records, reflecting the combined data. Awesome!

Edited to add:

Viri asked a good question in the comments – what if you want to keep all of the columns in both data frames? The easiest solution to this problem is to add dummy columns to each dataframe that represent the columns missing from the other data frame and then use rbind to join them together. Of course, you won't actually have any data for these additional columns, so we simply set the values to NA. I've wrapped this up into a function as well.

rbind.all.columns <- function(x, y) {

    x.diff <- setdiff(colnames(x), colnames(y))
    y.diff <- setdiff(colnames(y), colnames(x))

    x[, c(as.character(y.diff))] <- NA

    y[, c(as.character(x.diff))] <- NA

    return(rbind(x, y))
rbind.all.columns(, database.two)

And here you can see that we now have one dataframe containing all seven columns from our two sources, with NA values present where we are missing data from one of the dataframes. Nice!

   species latitude longitude        method     database data.source	accuracy
1        p   -33.87     150.5   camera trap        <NA>	NA
2        a   -33.71     151.3 live trapping        <NA>	NA
3        n   -33.79     151.8   camera trap        <NA>	NA
4        w   -34.35     151.3 live trapping        <NA>	NA	
5        h   -31.78     151.8   camera trap        <NA>	NA
6        q   -33.17     151.2 live trapping        <NA>	NA
7        d   -33.95     152.7          <NA> database.two   herbarium	3.934
8        f   -32.60     150.2          <NA> database.two      museum	8.500
9        z   -32.47     150.7          <NA> database.two   herbarium	3.259
10       f   -30.67     150.6          <NA> database.two      museum	2.756
11       e   -32.73     149.4          <NA> database.two   herbarium	4.072
12       x   -33.49     153.3          <NA> database.two      museum	8.169

Happy merging everyone!

1 A high technical and scientific term!

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